Discover model

Apromore allows us to discover a process map or a BPMN model from an event log. A process map (a.k.a. directly-follows graph) is a visual representation of the log as a graph where nodes capture process activities and directed arcs between them capture sequential order relations between the activities. For example, an arc going from activity Accept order to activity Check order indicates that in the log, we can observe that process cases flow from Accept order to Check order. Process maps are a simple yet effective means to understand the basic order of relationships between process activities. As such, they are the most common type of model discovered by commercial process mining tools.

View process map

To view the process map, double-click on a log. Alternatively, we can select a log from the repository and click on Discover > Discover model.



As a second alternative, select the log and right click on it, choose Discover model > From full log .


A window will open up, showing the process map discovered from the log.


Abstraction Settings

We can adjust the complexity of the discovered map by increasing or decreasing the frequency or duration of nodes and arcs visualized in our process map. The default values for the nodes and arcs sliders are 100% and 10%, respectively.


If a log has more than 250 nodes, only the most frequent 2500 nodes are displayed in the process map or BPMN model in Process Discoverer.

We can abstract a process map by Case frequency or Average Duration. For example, if we abstract by case frequency and shift the arcs or nodes slider towards the left, more edges/nodes with low case frequency will be removed from the process map.


Similarly, if we abstract by Average Duration and shift the arcs or nodes slider towards the left, more edges/nodes with low average duration will be removed from the process map.


We recommend you to use the abstraction sliders as follows. First, use the Nodes slider to select the percentage of nodes you wish to display in the canvas. For example, if you set the Nodes slider to 80%, Apromore will display only the 80% most frequent nodes and remove the 20% most infrequent.

Next, you may adjust the number of arcs displayed on the canvas. If you set the Arcs slider to 100%, then Apromore will display all the arcs between the current set of nodes. As you move the Arcs slider down from 100% down to 0%, Apromore will hide the most frequent arcs. Importantly, when Apromore hides an arc, it will always ensure the following two properties:

  1. The percentage of displayed nodes does not change. In other words, as you move the Arcs slider down from 100 to 0%, no node will be hidden along the way. If the Nodes slider is set to 80%, you will always see the 80% most frequent nodes, regardless of the position of the Arcs slider. For example, if the Nodes slider is set to 80% and the Arcs slider is set to 10%, Apromore will display 80% of the nodes, and a small number of arcs between these nodes.

  2. Every node has at least one incoming arc and one outgoing arc. In other words, there will be no disconnected nodes or disconnected fragments. This property is important. It ensures that if you switch the current view to the BPMN view, the BPMN model will be fully connected.

Because of the above two requirements, some arcs cannot be hidden. For example, it may happen that a node has many incoming arcs, each of which is relatively infrequent. As you move the slider from 100% to 0%, these infrequent arcs will be hidden. At some point, it may be that only one of the incoming arcs is displayed. This last remaining arc will not be deleted because otherwise the node would be disconnected from the rest.


In fact, Apromore’s arcs slider is designed to ensure a stronger property: Every node will always be on a path from the start node to the end node. This property is required in order to transform the process map into a correct BPMN model.

You can also use the abstraction sliders to remove the most infrequent nodes and the most infrequent arcs, instead of removing the most frequent nodes and arcs. To remove the most infrequent arcs, you should click on the invert order toggle: the icon with two opposite arrows. When the invert order to toggle is on, Apromore will:

  • Hide the most infrequent nodes when you move the Nodes slider down from 100% to 0%

  • Hide the most infrequent arcs when you move the Arcs slider from 100% to 0%

Similarly, you can use the abstraction sliders to remove the nodes or arcs with the highest duration. To achieve this behavior, select Average duration in the menu Abstract by located above the sliders. When the Average duration option is selected, Apromore will hide the nodes or arcs with highest average duration (the slowest arcs) when you move the corresponding slider towards 0%. Conversely, if the invert order toggle is in the On state and the option Average duration is selected, Apromore will hide the nodes or arcs with lowest average duration (the faster arcs) when you move the corresponding slider towards 0%.


Due to limitations in screen sizes and resolution, Apromore will never display more than 250 arcs in total. If the number of activities or the number of resources exceeds this threshold, Apromore will display the most frequent 250 nodes and ignore the remaining ones.

Log statistics

We can also check more detailed statistics. To inspect individual cases, use the Case Inspector. To open the Case Inspector, click on the number of cases under the Log statics section.


The Case Inspector window will open.


Click on a specific case to visualize it exclusively in the Process Discoverer.


To check the length of the cases, click on the Activity instances column. Cases will be sorted from the shortest to the longest.


We can also sort them by pathway, using the Case variant ID column or by the Duration of the pathway - Duration column.


To download the list of cases and their statistics, click on Download.


To inspect individual activity, use the Activity Inspector. To open the Activity Inspector, click on the number of activities under the Activities chart in Log statics section.


The Activity Inspector window will open.


To check the length of the activity, click on the Activity instances column. To check activity variant frequency, click on Percentage(%) column.


To download the list of activities and their statistics, click on Download.


To check the individual activity statistics, we can simply click on the activity. We can also select multiple activities at once by pressing Ctrl and dragging the mouse over the part of the model which consists of these activities.


Visualize by Frequency

We can also view the event log’s simple statistics, such as the total, median, minimum, maximum, and average number of times an activity is executed. This information is provided as a label on the activities/arcs, color of activities, and arcs’ thickness. The darker the blue color, the higher the number of times that activity has been observed in the log. The thicker arc, the higher the frequency of that arc. We can use the Frequency drop-down list in the Visualization settings section to view different statistics.


Visualize by Duration

Additionally, we can view the statistics on the time performance of the activities and arcs in the process map using the Duration drop-down list in the Visualization settings section. These are total, mean, median, minimum, maximum, and average duration of each arc (indicating the waiting time before starting a given activity, once the previous one has been completed), and total, mean, median, minimum, maximum, and average duration of each arc duration of an activity (a.k.a. the activity’s processing time). Suppose the log only has completion timestamps for each activity and not their start timestamp. In that case, these performance statistics will combine both processing time and waiting time into a single time statistics visualized on the arc. At the same time, activities will be shown as having an instantaneous duration.

Like frequency statistics, we can also visualize time performance statistics via labels on activities and arcs and via colors and line thickness (on a red scale) for activities and arcs.


Visualize by Frequency and Duration

We can also view both Frequency and Duration at the same time by clicking the image6.1. For example, if we are viewing our process map in Frequency mode, we can also view the Duration as a secondary metric by clicking on the image6.1.


Visualize by Cost

Apromore allows displaying cost metrics on top of a process map or a BPMN model in the Process Discoverer.


The Cost overlay functionality can be used only with the logs having the Roles column present while uploading the event log to Apromore.

To check the cost metrics, click on Manage cost centers * button placed right above the *Abstraction Settings panel.


Cost center management window appears, consisting of Role*s list, *Cost per hour section next to it* and Currency field below.


Enter the cost values next to each Role and choose the currency from the Currency drop-down or type it if absent from the list. Click Apply cost.


A pop-up window appears, notifying that we must reload the page to apply the Cost overlay. Click OK.


To see how the Resource costs are distributed among different process activities, click on the Cost overlay available under the Visualization settings section, Overlay subsection placed top left in the Process Discoverer.


Visualize by Different Perspectives

Visualizing the handover between activities is not the only way a process can be analyzed. There will be times when we may be interested in assessing if a specific resource or group of resources are overloaded with work. When clicking on Perspective we can decide which attribute of the log will focus on the process map.


For example, to visualize the handover of work among a group of resources, we can select the Resources option. This option will map each actor’s organizational role in our process to a node and connect two nodes if a handover of work occurs between the two nodes.


Filter Log

When analyzing an event log, we may be interested in isolating a particular type of behavior or removing a specific activity. An event log can be filtered by clicking on the Filter icon and creating a new filter that fits our needs. For more information on the optimal use of Filter, we suggest viewing the Filter Log manual.


View BPMN Model

Whenever the insights deriving from the analysis of a process map are not sufficient, the same functionalities are offered on top of a BPMN model. Changing the view from Process Map to BPMN model will automatically discover a BPMN model from an event log. When visualizing a BPMN model, the slider Parallelism offers the possibility to adjust the amount of parallelism (e.g., AND and OR gateways) discovered by the plugin.


Export Process Map/BPMN Model

A filtered log or discovered process map/BPMN can be exported by clicking on the different save buttons to export the model as a “.bpmn”, a PDF, PNG, or a JSON file.


Animate Log (Process Map)

The Animate button allows us to replay the log on top of the process map, using the Animate a log on top of the process map feature.


Search Activity

We can also search for an activity by using the search bar on the top-right.


For ease of view, the search results get highlighted in the process map.